Traffic Control and QOS in IP Networks PDF

Traffic Control and QOS in IP Networks PDF

The Traffic Parameters of each data flow in both directions. These parameters form the traffic descriptor for the traffic Control and QOS in IP Networks PDF. The basic differences among these service categories are described in the following sub-sections.


0 ATM Service Category ITU-T I. The CBR service category is used for connections that transport traffic at a constant bit rate, where there is an inherent reliance on time synchronisation between the traffic source and destination. CBR is tailored for any type of data for which the end-systems require predictable response time and a static amount of bandwidth continuously available for the life-time of the connection. The rt-VBR service category is used for connections that transport traffic at variable rates — traffic that relies on accurate timing between the traffic source and destination. An example of traffic that requires this type of service category are variable rate, compressed video streams. The nrt-VBR service category is used for connections that transport variable bit rate traffic for which there is no inherent reliance on time synchronisation between the traffic source and destination, but there is a need for an attempt at a guaranteed bandwidth or latency. The ABR service category is similar to nrt-VBR, because it also is used for connections that transport variable bit rate traffic for which there is no reliance on time synchronisation between the traffic source and destination, and for which no required guarantees of bandwidth or latency exist.

ABR provides a best-effort transport service, in which flow-control mechanisms are used to adjust the amount of bandwidth available to the traffic originator. The specification for ABR flow control uses these RM cells to control the flow of cell traffic on ABR connections. The ABR service expects the end-system to adapt its traffic rate in accordance with the feedback so that it may obtain its fair share of available network resources. The UBR service category also is similar to nrt-VBR, because it is used for connections that transport variable bit rate traffic for which there is no reliance on time synchronization between the traffic source and destination. However, unlike ABR, there are no flow-control mechanisms to dynamically adjust the amount of bandwidth available to the user.

UBR generally is used for applications that are very tolerant of delay and cell loss. Each ATM connection contains a set of parameters that describes the traffic characteristics of the source. These parameters are called source traffic parameters. The maximum allowable rate at which cells can be transported along a connection in the ATM network. The PCR is the determining factor in how often cells are sent in relation to time in an effort to minimize jitter. A calculation of the average allowable, long-term cell transfer rate on a specific connection.

The maximum allowable burst size of cells that can be transmitted contiguously on a particular connection. The minimum allowable rate at which cells can be transported along an ATM connection. A set of parameters are negotiated when a connection is set up in an ATM network. These parameters are used to measure the QoS of a connection and quantify end-to-end network performance at the ATM layer. The network should guarantee the negotiated QoS by meeting certain values of these parameters. The delay experienced by a cell between the time it takes for the first bit of the cell to be transmitted by the source and the last bit of the cell to be received by the destination.

The difference between the maximum and minimum CTD experienced during the connection. Peak-to-peak CDV and Instantaneous CDV are used. The percentage of cells that are lost in the network due to error or congestion and are not received by the destination. Hiroshi Saito, Teletraffic Technologies in ATM Networks, Artech House, 1993. For the customer service-oriented term, see service quality. In the field of computer networking and other packet-switched telecommunication networks, quality of service refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality.

Quality of service is particularly important for the transport of traffic with special requirements. In particular, developers have introduced Voice over IP technology to allow computer networks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applications with even stricter network performance requirements. In the field of telephony, quality of service was defined by the ITU in 1994. In the field of computer networking and other packet-switched telecommunication networks, teletraffic engineering refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality. A network or protocol that supports QoS may agree on a traffic contract with the application software and reserve capacity in the network nodes, for example during a session establishment phase. During the session it may monitor the achieved level of performance, for example the data rate and delay, and dynamically control scheduling priorities in the network nodes.

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