Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the subfield of sociology. For the subfield of psychology, see social psychology. Sociological social psychology was born in 1902 with the landmark the social psychology of knowledge PDF by sociologist Charles Horton Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, which presented Cooley’s concept of the looking glass self.
Thomas contributed the notion of the definition of the situation, with the proposition that became a basic tenet of sociology and sociological social psychology: « If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. One of the major currents of theory in this area sprang from work by philosopher and sociologist George Herbert Mead at the University of Chicago from 1894 forward. Mead generally is credited as the founder of symbolic interactionism. Contemporary symbolic interactionism originated out of ideas of George Herbert Mead and Max Weber.
In this framework meanings are constructed during social interaction, and constructed meanings influence the process of social interaction. Many symbolic interactionists see the self as a core meaning constructed through social relations, and influencing social relations. Process symbolic interactionism stems from the Chicago School and considers the meanings underlying social interactions to be situated, creative, fluid, and often contested. Researchers in this tradition frequently use qualitative and ethnographic methods. Postmodern symbolic interactionists understand the notions of self and identity to be increasingly fragmented and illusory, and consider attempts at theorizing to be meta-narratives with no more authority than other conversations. The approach is presented in detail by The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. Social exchange theory emphasizes the idea that social action is the result of personal choices made in order to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Theories of social exchange share many essential features with classical economic theories like rational choice theory. However, social exchange theories differ from economic theories by making predictions about the relationships between persons, and not just the evaluation of goods. Expectation states theory and its popular « sub-theory », status characteristics theory, proposes that individuals use available social information to form expectations for themselves and others. This research perspective deals with relationships between large-scale social systems and individual behaviors and mental states including feelings, attitudes and values, and mental faculties. Some researchers focus on issues of health and how social networks bring useful social support to the ill. Another line of research deals with how education, occupation, and other components of social class impact values.
Social influence is a factor in every individual’s life. Social influence takes place when one’s thoughts, actions and feelings are affected by other people. It is a way of interaction that affects individual behavior and can occur within groups and between groups. It is a fundamental process that affects ways of socialization, conformity, leadership and social change.