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Louis XIII et Richelieu: c’est tout le cadre historique des Trois Mousquetaires qui nous est raconté dans cette biographie, écrite avec toute la fougue et toute la gaieté de Dumas. Il y a bien autre chose que les rapports du roi et du cardinal dans ce livre: il y a Anne d’Autriche, et par conséquent Buckingham, il y a le maréchal d’Ancre, il y a Cinq-Mars, il y a Marion de Lorme, il y a, du vieux Malherbe au jeune Molière, toute la société littéraire de l’époque, qui vit la création de l’Académie française par Richelieu, il y a toute la France trépidante du XVIIe siècle.
Dernier volume de la série des » Grands hommes en robe de chambre « , Louis XIII et Richelieu était inédit depuis plus de cent ans.
This article is about the 17th-century French king. This article needs additional citations for verification. 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de’ Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d’Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France.
Born at the Château de Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de’ Medici. Louis XIII ascended the throne in 1610 upon the assassination of his father, and his mother Marie de’ Medici acted as his Regent. Regent until 1617, when he was 16. The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie’s Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France. Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely increasingly on the Italian Concino Concini, who assumed the role of her favourite. Concini was widely unpopular because he was a foreigner.
This further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé’s rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. In the meantime, Charles d’Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d’état. As a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617.
Luynes soon became as unpopular as Concini had been. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV’s ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de’ Medici. The Thirty Years’ War broke out in 1618. The French court was initially unsure which side to support.
The French nobles were further antagonised against Luynes by the 1618 revocation of the paulette tax and by the sale of offices in 1620. French nobles launched a rebellion in 1620, but their forces were easily routed by royal forces at Les Ponts-de-Cé in August 1620. Louis then launched an expedition against the Huguenots of Béarn who had defied a number of royal decisions. This expedition managed to re-establish Catholicism as the official religion of Béarn.
In 1621, Louis XIII, was formally reconciled with his mother. Luynes was appointed Constable of France, after which he and Louis set out to quell the Huguenot rebellion. The siege at the Huguenot stronghold of Montauban had to be abandoned after three months owing to the large number of royal troops who had succumbed to camp fever. Following the death of Luynes, Louis determined that he would rule by council. His mother returned from exile and, in 1622, entered this council, where Condé recommended violent suppression of the Huguenots.
The 1622 campaign, however, followed the pattern of the previous year: royal forces won some early victories, but were unable to complete a siege, this time at the fortress of Montpellier. The rebellion was ended by the Treaty of Montpellier, signed by Louis XIII and the Duke of Rohan in October 1622. The treaty confirmed the tenets of the Edict of Nantes: several Huguenot fortresses were to be razed, but the Huguenots retained control of Montauban and La Rochelle. Louis ultimately dismissed Noël Brûlart de Sillery and Pierre Brûlart in 1624 because of his displeasure with how they handled the diplomatic situation over the Valtellina with Spain.
Cardinal Richelieu played a major role in Louis XIII’s reign from 1624, determining France’s direction over the course of the next eighteen years. As a result of Richelieu’s work, Louis XIII became one of the first examples of an absolute monarch. Louis also worked to reverse the trend of promising French artists leaving for Italy to work and study. He commissioned the painters Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne to decorate the Louvre Palace. In order to continue the exploration efforts of his predecessor Henry IV, Louis XIII considered a colonial venture in Morocco, and sent a fleet under Isaac de Razilly in 1619. Razilly was able to explore the coast as far as Mogador. In 1630, Razilly was able to negotiate the purchase of French slaves from the Moroccans.