This article is about the FRENCH TRANSLATION HOW TO FAIL AT COLLEGE (ENGLISH BOOK t. 1) PDF stone itself. For the actual text on the stone, see Rosetta Stone decree.
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The stone, carved during the Hellenistic period, is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple, possibly at nearby Sais. Study of the decree was already under way when the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. Ancient Egyptian inscriptions and literature confidently. Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars, a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young and Champollion’s contributions to the decipherment and, since 2003, demands for the stone’s return to Egypt. The Rosetta Stone is listed as « a stone of black granodiorite, bearing three inscriptions found at Rosetta » in a contemporary catalogue of the artefacts discovered by the French expedition and surrendered to British troops in 1801. The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele. No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.
Owing to its damaged state, none of the three texts is absolutely complete. The top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. The full length of the hieroglyphic text and the total size of the original stele, of which the Rosetta Stone is a fragment, can be estimated based on comparable stelae that have survived, including other copies of the same order. The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler. The decree was issued by a congress of priests who gathered at Memphis. The inscription in demotic conflicts with this, listing consecutive days in March for the decree and the anniversary.
The decree was issued during a turbulent period in Egyptian history. Ptolemy V Epiphanes reigned from 204 to 181 BC, the son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and his wife and sister Arsinoe. Political forces beyond the borders of Egypt exacerbated the internal problems of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon had made a pact to divide Egypt’s overseas possessions. The stele is a late example of a class of donation stelae, which depicts the reigning monarch granting a tax exemption to the resident priesthood. Pharaohs had erected these stelae over the previous 2,000 years, the earliest examples dating from the Egyptian Old Kingdom.